Today at Epec, the customer comes first, and everything we do must be put through that filter. Whether it is developing e-commerce platforms to make it easier to work with us, or creating a NPI new product introduction process that helps our customers get to market faster, or the other 10 new projects we have in process, we must focus on building the new.
PC University - SI Signal Integrity Basics
By doing that every day, and by always making the customer our top priority, we plan on being here for another 65 years and then some. All Rights Reserved. Cable Assemblies. Printed Circuit Boards. RF Products. User Interfaces.
Sections Open for Enrollment:
Flexible Heaters. Lower Frequencies At lower frequencies the signals remain within data characterization and the system performs as designed. Lower Speeds At low speeds, the frequency response has little influence on the signal, unless the transmission medium is particularly long. Printed Circuit Board Schematic Depicting Signal Integrity PCB Considerations During the Circuit Design Below are some of the guidelines that have been published by many different sources such as Texas Instruments that addresses high-speed signals such as clock signals and their routing and gives designers a review of the important coherences.
What is the highest frequency and fastest rise time in the system? What are the electrical specifications at the inputs and outputs of the sinks and sources? Are there sensitive signals to route — for example, think about controlled impedance, termination, propagation delay on a trace clock distribution, buses, etc. Is a microstrip adequate for the sensitive signals, or is it essential to use stripline technique? How many different supply voltages exist? Does each supply voltage need its own power plane, or is it possible to split them?
Create a diagram with the functional groups of the system — e. Are there any interconnections between at least two independent functional groups? Take special care of them. Think about the return current and crosstalk to other traces. Clarify the minimum width, separation and height of a trace with the PCB manufacturer. What's the minimum distance between two layers? What about the minimum drill and the requirements of vias? Is it possible to use blind vias and buried vias? The capacitance increases in the region of the corner, and the characteristic impedance changes.
This impedance change causes reflections.
Signal Integrity with Hands-On Simulation (3-day)
To minimize any impedance change, the best routing would be a round bend. Separate high-speed signals e. The use of vias is essential in most routings. But the designer has to be careful when using them. They add additional inductance and capacitance, and reflections occur due to the change in the characteristic impedance. Vias also increase the trace length.
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Avoid vias in differential traces. Printed Circuit Board Construction Desired printed circuit board construction build-up depends on the component packages used in the design, required signal trace density, and impedance matching requirements. Circuit Model of a Transmission Line. Impedance and Delay.
Signal Integrity - Simplified
DC Resistance and Resistivity. Stripline and Microstrip Capacitance.
Stripline and Microstrip Inductance. Understanding Stripline and Microstrip Impedance. Understanding Dielectric Losses. Summary of Signal Loss and Distortion Characteristics. Effects of Trace Shape. Understanding Mutual Capacitance and Inductance. What Are Odd and Even Modes?. Far-End Crosstalk. Near-End Crosstalk. Guard Traces. Understanding Signal Reflections -Introduction.
How Are Reflections Created?. The Reflection Coefficient. Reactive Discontinuities. Source Series Termination.
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- Signal Integrity with Hands-On Simulation (3-day).
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Parallel and Thevenin Termination. Diode Termination. AC Termination. Multidrop Lines. Stubs and Branches. Mitered Corners. Routing Near the Board Edge. Serpentine Traces. Reducing Crosstalk.
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Reducing Reflections. Improving Inadequate Timing Margins. Options to Reduce Circuit Board Thickness. Estimating DC Resistance. Estimating Inductance and Capacitance of a Plane.