Exceptional customer service Get specialist help and advice. Fire blight is a major disease of apples, pears and certain woody ornamental plants.
- Fire Blight: The Disease and its Causative Agent, Erwinia amylovora.
- Communicating Effectively for Dummies.
- Fire Blight: The Disease and its Causative Agent, Erwinia amylovora!
- Solar module packaging : polymeric requirements and selection.
It is caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora. This organism was one of the first plant pathogenic bacteria to be extensively investigated, and has become a model for study by bacteriologists in the development of their subject. Written by leading research workers from the USA, Europe and New Zealand, this book is the first comprehensive volume for twenty years to address this subject.
Newsletter Google 4. Help pages. Prothero Michael J. Benton Richard Fortey View All. Go to British Wildlife. Conservation Land Management.
- 1 Introduction.
- Log in to Wiley Online Library.
- About this book!
- Apert Syndrome - A Bibliography and Dictionary for Physicians, Patients, and Genome Researchers.
Go to Conservation Land Management. Click to have a closer look. Select version. About this book Customer reviews Related titles. For pears, cultivar choices are more limited because superior horticultural traits e. In recent years, fire blight has become more common in apples because the spectrum of cultivars grown commercially has expanded and shifted toward those with greater susceptibility to the disease e. With this shift has come the recognition that popular dwarfing rootstocks for apple, M.
Dwarfing rootstocks with resistance to fire blight are being developed and commercialized e. Many ornamental cultivars also show high levels of fire blight resistance. Vigilant sanitation through the removal of expanding and overwintering cankers is essential for control of fire blight in susceptible cultivars. Removal of overwintering "holdover" cankers is accomplished by inspecting and pruning trees during the winter.
Prevention of blossom infection is important in fire blight management because infections initiated in flowers are destructive and because the pathogen cells originating from floral infections provide much of the inoculum for secondary phases of the disease, including the infection of shoots, fruits, and rootstocks. Management actions to suppress blossom blight target the floral epiphytic phase.
Sprays of antibiotics, streptomycin, oxytetracycline or kasugamycin, have effectively suppressed blossom infection in commercial orchards Figure Copper compounds also are effective but applications are commonly limited to the pre-bloom period because copper ions in solution can be phytotoxic to the skin of young fruits.
Non-pathogenic, microbial epiphytes sprayed onto flowers can preemptively suppress fire blight by colonizing the niche stigmatic surface used by E. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain A, is registered and sold commercially for this purpose BlightBan A as is the yeast, Aureobasidium pullulans Blossom Protect. In summer, established infections are controlled principally by pruning.
Effective control through pruning requires that cuts are made cm 8 to 12 inches below the visible end of the expanding canker Figure 13 and that between cuts the pruning tools are disinfested with a bleach or alcohol solution to prevent cut-to-cut transmission. Repeated trips through an orchard are necessary, as some as infections are invariably missed and others become visible at later times Figure Prunings harboring the pathogen are usually destroyed by burning Figure In severely affected orchards, cultural practices that slow the growth rate of the tree will also slow the rate of canker development.
This includes withholding irrigation water, nitrogen fertilizer, and cultivation. Similarly, practices that reduce tree wounding and bacterial movement can reduce secondary infection. This includes controlling insects such as plant bugs and psylla, limiting use of limb spreaders in young orchards, and avoiding the use overhead sprinklers. Chemicals such as streptomycin or copper can suppress trauma blight if applied immediately after a hailstorm. These hosts include hawthorn, serviceberry, and mountain ash. Early European settlers introduced apple and pear to North America.
The first report of fire blight as a disease of apple and pear occurred in , in the Hudson Valley of New York. In California, the disease was first reported in Early 19th and 20th century horticultural texts and bulletins recognized fire blight as a serious disease of pear, provided descriptions of symptoms, and outlined pruning practices for control Figure Nonetheless, in the eastern United States, fire blight proved to be destructively epidemic on pear, limiting the cultivation of this host.
Get this edition
Even today, the threat of fire blight restricts commercial production of pear to semi-arid, desert areas west of the Rocky Mountains. Koch's postulates for E. Arthur in , but the genesis of the concept that bacteria can be plant pathogens required the contributions of many scientists notably T. Burrill and growers over a period extending from to In the late 's, M. Waite linked blossom infection to the movement of the pathogen from flower-to-flower by pollinating insects. During the 20th century, introductions of infested plant material served to establish E.
In , fire blight was first observed in the Po River Valley of northern Italy, which is the largest pear production area in the world. Since , the Italian government has destroyed , pear trees in an attempt to eradicate E. Recently, fire blight has spread eastward from the Middle East to the northern Himalayan foothills of central Asia Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan , which is the center of origin for Malus apple spp.
Baker, K. Fire Blight of pome fruits: The genesis of the concept that bacteria can be pathogenic to plants. Hilgardia Beer, S. Fire Blight. Jones, A. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. Management of fire blight: A case study in microbial ecology. McManus, P. Antibiotics for plant disease control: Silver bullets or rusty sabers? Smith, T. The development and use of Cougar Blight — A situation-specific fire blight risk assessment model for apple and pear. The protein interactions can be displayed according their confidence, evidence and actions or interactions.
For the in vitro experiments, the E. The in planta samples were treated with this reagent after the final wash step with PBS. Partial funding by project No. Michelle Holtappels was indebted to the IWT for a predoctoral fellowship during this work. We thank Erik Royackers for technical assistance. The authors have no conflict of interest. Mass spectrometry and identification of the proteins was done by J. All authors were involved in discussion of the results and reviewed the manuscript. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Sci Rep. Published online Aug 3. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Roland Valcke, Email: eb. Corresponding author. Received Dec 19; Accepted Jul Abstract Fire blight, caused by the enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora , is a destructive disease, which can affect most members of the Rosaceae family. Introduction The Gram-negative enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogen that causes fire blight, a devastating necrotic disease forming a major threat to pome fruit and other economically relevant species belonging to the Rosacea family 1.
Results Proteome analysis of E. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Corresponding results between both strains As can be expected, several proteins are shared amongst conditions between both strains. Figure 4. Figure 5. Discussion The obtained results from this research show that these techniques can be used to extract viable cells from infected plant tissue for further processing using different omics techniques.
Materials and Methods Bacterial strains and growth conditions During this research, we included two strains of E. Protein extraction The isolated bacteria from both in vitro and in planta experiments were washed in PBS; total protein fractions were extracted as described previously 14 , Supplementary data S1 K, xlsx.
Acknowledgements Partial funding by project No. Author Contributions M. Notes Competing Interests The authors declare no competing interests. Footnotes Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. References 1. Vanneste, J. In Fire blight: the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora.
Acimovic SG, et al. Control of fire blight Erwinia amylovora on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes. Frontiers in Plant Science. Norelli JL, et al. Rapid transcriptional response of apple to fire blight disease revealed by cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization analysis. Baldo A, et al. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars Malus x domestica with Erwinia amylovora. BMC Plant Biology. Sarowar S, et al.
Xii International Workshop on Fire Blight. Kamber T, et al.
Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection. Scientific Reports. Identification of Erwinia amylovora genes induced during infection of immature pear tissue. Journal of Bacteriology. Alfano JR, Collmer A. The type III Hrp secretion pathway of plant pathogenic bacteria: trafficking harpins, Avr proteins, and death. Erwinia amylovora secretes harpin via a type III pathway and contains a homolog of yopN of Yersinia spp.
Proteomics and integrative omic approaches for understanding host-pathogen interactions and infectious diseases. Molecular Systems Biology. Mann RA, et al.
Fire blight : the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora in SearchWorks catalog
PloS One. Smits THM, et al. Journal of Plant Pathology. Holtappels M, et al. A comparative proteome analysis reveals flagellin, chemotaxis regulated proteins and amylovoran to be involved in virulence differences between Erwinia amylovora strains. J Proteomics. The in planta proteome of wild type strains of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.
Virulence of Erwinia amylovora, a prevalent apple pathogen: Outer membrane proteins and type III secreted effectors increase fitness and compromise plant defenses. Evidence for the involvement of an oxidative stress in the initiation of infection of pear by Erwinia amylovora. Plant Physiology. Zhao YF, et al.
Systems level analysis of two-component signal transduction systems in Erwinia amylovora: Role in virulence, regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility. BMC Genomics. Park D, Forst S. Molecular Microbiology. Swarming of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a complex adaptation leading to increased production of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Hommais F, et al. Large-scale monitoring of pleiotropic regulation of gene expression by the prokaryotic nucleoid-associated protein, H-NS. Anti-silencing: overcoming H-NS-mediated repression of transcription in Gram-negative enteric bacteria.
Shigella: a model of virulence regulation in vivo.