Guide Chile: The Legacy of Hispanic Capitalism (Latin American Histories)

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Kathy rated it really liked it May 03, Colin rated it liked it Aug 30, Kevin rated it really liked it Nov 20, Lorraine added it Dec 22, Dooley marked it as to-read May 07, Reed marked it as to-read Jul 07, Jennifer marked it as to-read Sep 03, Romina marked it as to-read Nov 09, Luisa marked it as to-read Apr 06, Gabriel Nahmias added it May 24, Forrest added it Mar 22, BookDB marked it as to-read Sep 18, Turnip Van Dyke added it Jan 11, Jenny added it Jul 05, Mariah Bates marked it as to-read Sep 11, Mariana marked it as to-read Oct 15, Julian Thomas marked it as to-read Oct 20, Patrick Thurston added it Nov 20, E E added it Nov 27, Pat added it May 23, Stujah marked it as to-read Jul 04, Colin marked it as to-read Jul 06, Kevin marked it as to-read Aug 24, Han marked it as to-read Dec 03, Jarrod Haynes marked it as to-read Dec 12, Phillip added it Aug 05, Marc added it Sep 03, Claudio marked it as to-read Sep 01, Leslie Bozakis marked it as to-read Oct 07, Furthermore, there are no central venues in the region, journals or associations, on professional or disciplinary writing; thus, academic publications primarily circulate in journals affiliated to Linguistics and Language Sciences.

Therefore, in Latin America there is no specific field of writing in the disciplines WID , in general, or Technical Communication, in particular. The interdisciplinary field of Technical Communication has developed in the U. The field has been fostered especially by advancement of engineering and related disciplines which generate both scientific knowledge and financial profit.

This interdisciplinary field has emerged to research and teach communication practices within institutions companies, research centers, civil organizations, government, and universities associated with scientific and technological changes and corporate capitalism in North America. In Latin American countries, global trends of science, innovation, and technology transfer appear as part of higher education reforms and funding research agendas.

Regardless of the gap in progress and the presence of diverse needs among regions and economies, Latin-American faculty and students in Engineering are asked to produce cutting-edge knowledge and artifacts within a fierce competition. Consequently, contributions of technical communication programs are valuable across regions, especially in Spanish Latin America, provided they are developed to help stakeholders by taking critically into account their local conditions and challenges of global and transcultural demands.

Given the emerging Latin-American body of initiatives and studies in Engineering writing, this article aims at exploring features of these specific endeavors reported by publications. Journal articles and oral communications have been explored to provide tentative answers for the following research questions:. When and where have studies and interventions on Engineering writing started? What are the reasons justifying the emergence of studies and interventions related to Engineering writing?

What type of language is studied or taught linguistic systems; mathematical and linguistic systems, and multimodal systems? This article takes into account the important call for conducting research about writing and communication across cultures avoiding an ethnocentric bias Thatcher, ; , , , , To do so, the aforementioned questions are, in the first place, answered by describing the sample and the results of the analysis of Latin-American publications on Engineering writing.

Since the ultimate goal of this study is to provide a context to boost agendas for Latin-American Writing Studies in Engineering and the development of Technical Communication Programs in the region, 3 a section framing technical communication programs in the U. This contrast is useful to envision Latin-American research agendas by valuing what has been locally developed and identifying international debates in which Latin-American writing advocates can contribute in the field of Technical Communication.

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A qualitative analysis of publications that report Latin-American writing initiatives in Engineering. Since there are no central venues either journals, professional associations, or open-access projects to easily access the literature on writing studies in Latin America, in general, and Engineering writing, in particular, the sample in appendix 1 was comprised of 22 publications journal articles and oral communications collected as a convenience sampling. I revised the published memoirs in CD of two academic events 4 I participated in August by electronically searching across the files with the label "Engineering".

During the same period, I emailed Latin-American colleagues I knew they worked on Engineering writing and asked for their publications. By using this data gathering, I collected 16 publications. In December , the first Latin-American Data Base on reading and writing studies was launched Cisneros, , 5 and I also searched by using the tag "Engineering"; 6 other publications were gathered. Titles, abstracts, and sections of conclusions and discussion of the publications were read to conduct the analysis.

Table 1 presents the relationship between the research questions and the analytical categories utilized:.


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Given the size 22 publications , and type of the sample convenience sampling , the analysis of the prior categories was done by counting occurrences when identifiable, and the results are only descriptive. The oldest paper of the sample was published in However, after there was a growth in the number of publications according to the data behavior in previous years figure 1.

However, Argentina might be the country in which more publications have been produced 11 cases figure 2. The publications were primarily pedagogically-oriented by reporting either experiences or research on pedagogical experiences 14 cases , in contrast to papers that were research-oriented but not related to pedagogical experiences 8 cases.

The following is an example of a Colombian pedagogically-oriented publication in which writing is used to support student learning in a class of electronic Engineering 6 :. Example 1: Article title: "Integration of reading and writing in the laboratory course of electronic devices in Electronic Engineering" This paper presents a model integrating reading and production of scientific texts as tools to build disciplinary knowledge.

Chile: The Legacy of Hispanic Capitalism (Latin American Histories)

In doing so, the goal is to develop critical and analytical thinking, and communication skills of students enrolled in the course "Laboratory of electronic devices", one of the core experimental courses of the major in Electronic Engineering program at the University del Valle. An example of a research-oriented publication is as follows; a study is conducted to explore academic and professional genres required during undergraduate education in Industrial Engineering in a public Argentine university:.

Example 2: Article title: "Genres and Engineering education: from university to the industry" This article reports the results of the first stage of a research on academic and professional genres required during undergraduate education in Industrial Engineering in a public Argentine university. This study includes three sites to study genres: faculty members and students, as participants, and texts, as products.

This paper reports faculty members' perspective collected by interviews to explore what genres are required in the academic training of industrial engineers, and analyzes how these genres are distributed throughout the program The research oriented publications were journal articles, whereas the publications pedagogically-oriented, including those that are research on pedagogical experiences, were both journal articles and oral communications. The following case illustrates this tendency by presenting a fragment of a Colombian pedagogically-oriented publication in which writing assignments were the core of a pedagogic intervention in a course of Computer Engineering:.


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Example 3: Article title: "Writing as a means of learning and communication in the Engineering Software Processes course. Collaborative work between language teachers and those of other disciplines" This paper aims to analyze on writing guidance and assessment offered in a course titled "Software Engineering Processes" and its impact in students for learning content knowledge. The research relies on theoretical frameworks on Academic Literacy and Writing across the Curriculum. Writing assignments were designed collaboratively between the instructor of the course and a writing instructor.

A case study was conducted based on this experience The results show as influential elements in the learning process: instructors' guidelines, evaluation rubrics, instructor's feedback, student-teacher conferences, assigning writing tasks with specific purposes, as well as opportunities to write drafts and present progress reports The trend of the initiatives and studies being primarily focused on incorporating writing to learn might be also related to 14 of the 22 articles in the sample thematizing genres as textual- linguistic entities. Out of 14 cases, 4 publications are research-oriented, 6 are pedagogically-oriented, and 4 are research on pedagogical experiences.

The following fragment illustrates these cases by presenting an excerpt of an Argentine study about a pedagogic intervention focused on a professional Engineering genre named "the yearly memory":. Example 4: Article title: "Professional genres in the engineer learning process" In this research, we present a didactic design that articulates research work about professional genres and disciplinary contents based on teaching a professional genre.

More specifically, it is about an experience that took place in an Economics course for Engineers in which the specific teaching of a professional genre, the yearly memory, is addressed in relation with other contents of the course program The tendency on writing to learn approach throughout the publications might be connected with some of the types of genres mentioned in the sample i.

The following fragment illustrates this tendency by reporting a Colombian initiative of an interdisciplinary team teaching between a writing instructor and an Engineering instructor for a class in Materials Resistance:. This article presents the findings of an interdisciplinary study on summary writing as a learning strategy which was carried out by a language professor and an Engineering professor in the Materials Resistance course, offered to Universidad [name of the university] Engineering students.

The ultimate purpose in using this strategy was to raise students' consciousness about the key role of writing in their learning process. Unlike traditional summary writing, these ones were not written for the professor for him to assess whether the students had reviewed course contents. Instead, summaries provided the students with an opportunity to monitor their own learning process and express what they had learned in a written format This tendency is illustrated by the next example about a research project conducted as part of an Argentine institutional program for teaching academic and professional literacy across curriculum:.

Example 6: Article title: "Professional literacy during the university career: between the university and the enterprise" This paper presents some partial results of an ongoing research project about writing practices in the Industrial Engineering field. As part of the activities of an institutional program for teaching academic and professional literacy across the university curriculum PRODEAC developed at Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento UNGS , we surveyed a group of engineers in order to analyze the genres employed in professional settings The following case illustrates with a research project that aimed at describing and quantifying multisemiotic artifacts emerging from a Chilean corpus collected in twelve PhD programs:.

Example 7: Article title: "Multisemiosis and corpus linguistics: multisemiotic artifacts in the texts of six disciplines in the academic pucv corpus" From strictly linguistic studies, the characterization of multisemiotic written specialized texts has been scarce or almost null. Not many corpus-based studies focus on the description of graphs, tables, and diagrams, as well as their layouts, as part of academic texts. The objective of this study is to identify, describe and quantify the occurrence of multi semiotic artifacts which are present in a sample of texts 1.

The corpus was collected in twelve PhD programs in six Chilean universities and comprises all the documents students are given to read during their formal curricula, with the exception of those included in the final doctoral research 3, written texts, which are distributed among Physics, Chemistry, Biotechnology, History, Literature, and Linguistics The case below shows these types of mentions in an Argentine action-research experience in which students were asked to perform computer assignments in a calculus course:.

Example 8: Article title: "Early error detection: an action-research experience teaching vector calculus" Vector calculus students played an active role in their own learning process. They were required to present weekly reports, in both oral and written forms, on the topics studied, instead of merely sitting and watching as the teacher solved problems on the blackboard. The students were also asked to perform computer assignments, and their learning process was continuously monitored The qualitative distribution of individual genres mentioned by the publications pedagogically-oriented confirms that in freshman and sophomore years one of the pedagogical goals has been writing to learn i.

In junior and senior years, research-oriented writing has been incorporated e. The analysis of the topics of the conclusion sections suggests that the three most frequent topics mentioned throughout the publications are:. Writing to learn is associated with improving student engagement 7 cases ;. The next case is an illustration of conclusions implying the trend in the approach "writing to learn". According to the evaluation of an Argentine pedagogic intervention that was relying on writing weekly reports, it seems that some of the students considered the approach very demanding:.

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Example 9: Article title: "Improvement of Mathematics teaching and learning in Bioengineering: a challenge assumed from action research" A survey was designed and implemented to the students in the courses , and , with the purpose of evaluating their perception of the weekly report. The questions and results are shown in figure 3.

The tendency of the publication in the approach "writing to learn" might be also related to fact the publications were primarily pedagogically-oriented or reporting research on pedagogical experiences. The specific conclusion about "Interdisciplinary work is an opportunity" emerged in 5 cases in publications pedagogically-oriented 3 are research on pedagogical experiences, and 2 are pedagogically-oriented , and in 1 case a research-oriented article. Example Article title: "Creating an educational research space in an Engineering department" Regarding the negative aspects and difficulties in its implementation, "it is difficult to distribute the time between the control of individual work and group discussion to explain the subjects in which frequent errors of the group are detected".

Furthermore, it is stated that despite the writing supports introduced by these initiatives, the students still struggle in developing audience awareness.

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This particular implication is regarded in the publications as useful to inform pedagogical initiatives across the curriculum and design teaching materials and resources. The following fragment illustrates these cases by presenting an excerpt of a Chilean study describing multisemiotic artifacts from a corpus of readings at PhD levels:. Example Article title: "Academic and professional genre Variation across four disciplines: Exploring the pucv corpus of Written Spanish" Research studies as the one described here also have pedagogical implications concerning: a the selection of written genres, b the elaboration of teaching materials, and c the preparation of language tests of various kinds, such as the assessment of disciplinary contents and of specialized discourse comprehension.

Furthermore, this analysis also reveals that the authors of the publications are advocating for pedagogic initiatives that bridge academic and professional writing practices in Engineering, which might suggest that it is already acknowledged this double nature of writing and communication in the Engineering field 3 cases of publications research-oriented. Since the ultimate goal of this study is to provide a context to boost agendas for Latin-American Writing Studies in Engineering and the development of Technical Communication Programs in the region, the following section is framing technical communication programs in the U.

This contrast is useful to envision Latin-American research agendas by valuing what has been locally developed and identifying international debates in the field of Technical Communication to which Latin-American writing advocates can contribute. Overall, the field is acknowledged as interdisciplinary, since it shares and borrows methods, theories, and even content areas from Design Communication, Speech Communication, Rhetoric and Composition, Psychology, Education, and Computer Science Spilka, ; Rude, This interdisciplinarity might be related to an unformed disciplinary identity and the lack of external recognition that has been attributed to multiple causes: a the relative newness of the field as an area of inquiry; b the assumption that the field on technical communication offers "services", in both corporate and academic settings, for more dominant fields such as Engineering, Information Technology, and Business; and, c the adjunct status of technical communication programs within the English departments in which they are usually housed , and within the broad field of Rhetoric and Writing Rude, Universities often treat Business and Technical Communication Programs BTC similarly to first-year composition FYC , that is, as a course about academic writing as a general domain instead of a professional or disciplinary practice.

As happens in FYC courses, BTC courses for students who are not pursuing Engineering or Science as their majors perceive the classes as service courses, and their instructors must struggle for status and identity within their universities Russell, Technical communication instructors have reported they often feel like outsiders within English departments. Regarding work conditions, technical communication instructors are typically hired as lecturers; however, sometimes instructors in writing programs are better situated in terms of status, community, and respect Reave, Diverse student population shapes the BTC programs.

In technical communication courses, all the students are Engineering majors; whereas in courses offered outside the schools, students from other majors attend. A diverse student body is more typical for elective courses Reave, Furthermore, "writing to learn" and "learning to write" 8 are still part of the pedagogical debates in the field, because BTC courses are seen as more disciplinary or professionally orientated than first-year composition courses FYC , which are mainly associated with general education classes. As a result, these courses typically are comprised by a more cohesive student population in terms of their majors than those in liberal arts courses FYC associated with general education Russell, For instance, since Departments of English offer "services" to Engineering majors, teaching this type of course is seen as outside of the main purpose of English departments.

Overcoming the tensions between English departments and technical communication programs is thus seen as an important issue in the agenda of the U. The tensions might be overcome insofar as it is accepted that technical writing has humanistic value by exploring rhetorical features in science communication even under expectations of objectivity Miller, Cultural beliefs tend to treat "technology" and "data" as fixed and unbiased objects, but these assumptions change if science production is acknowledged as a rhetorical act, that is, knowledge production as a result of interpersonal negotiations in interpreting evidence Winsor, Debates over the status of the field have therefore influenced research and teaching agendas.

One of the visible debates is how to define the ideal practices of the field. If technical communication and writing simply draw on the best practices carried out by industry and other workplace settings, non-academic environments would be producing authoritative knowledge, which leaves a narrow intellectual space for the discipline.

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Furthermore, under the importance of models on "expanding learning" Bernhardt, , 10 a research agenda is needed to provide information about transitions and overlapping practices between industry and academic settings; this means that academia and workplaces should interact to boost knowledge propagation and innovation between these two contexts.

This study of marginalization also includes the study of tacit system of values and commitments within bureaucratic hierarchies, high technologies, and corporate capitalism that are embedded in technical communication practices Miller, Studies have also documented emerging technical communication practices because of the influence of digital technologies. Developments in mobile technology have encouraged more cooperative work that is contingent and not physically-situated.

On one hand, more people can work anywhere by telecommuting, collaborating electronically, and running their own business with mobile phones and laptops; however, on the other hand, freedom to work anywhere often means isolation and difficulty to build trust and relationships with others, which brings restricted opportunities for collaboration and networking but opportunities for co-working. As a result, co-working is an emerging technical communication practice that has been recontextualized by other inter-organizational activities as freelancing, virtual teams, and peer production Spinuzzi, Because of the influence of digital technologies in technical communication practices, some scholars have claimed that the main goal of BTC programs is to increase students' marketability to be prepared for the job market, mainly by increasing their skills for documentation process in the age of cooperative-technological interaction.

This is why computer literacy is visible in the pedagogical agendas. There are different types of courses: a skill courses for every day computer literacy at workplaces; b courses on hardware and software for technical communication practices; c courses on desktop publishing or graphic design programs that are focused on cost-effective productions for organizations; d publication management courses; e computer intensive instruction in introductory writing courses; and, f computer literacy courses to build critical awareness on digital reading and writing practices.

Pedagogies on critical computer literacy particularly advocate for ideological analysis of literacy practices surrounding computer usage against to computer-skills pedagogies Selber, Subject matter of the courses: science communication, professional genres, research skills, and journal publication. This dynamic and adaptive human—animal relationship has been pushed to the limit during extinction pulses, manifest in the currently accelerating biodiversity crisis.

Environmental history makes the convincing case that any historical account that neglects the environment offers an inaccurate depiction of the past. By the same token, animal historians suggest that a more complete understanding of history requires redefining its boundaries to include the often underappreciated story of nonhuman species and their interrelationships with human societies.

Anticommunism was a central force in the history of the Chilean political conflict in the 20th century. Different combinations and interpretations within each framework resulted in different anticommunist expressions, from pro-fascist movements and nationalist groups to the conservative-liberal right wing, the Social Christian center and even moderate socialists.

Many of them, especially in the second half of the 20th century, understood anticommunism as a defense of different variations of capitalism. Of course, anticommunism was not a uniquely Chilean phenomenon. It was, in fact, an ideological trend worldwide. This conditioned the reception in Chile of global events and ideas, while it enabled the construction of transnational networks among related actors. The enactment of the Law of Permanent Defense of Democracy in , which outlawed the Communist Party, symbolized the alignment of Chilean politics to Cold War bipolarity.

The Popular Unity government was the materialization of all anticommunist fears. The counter-revolutionary bloc created then paved the way to the coup and the subsequent military dictatorship, which used anticommunism as state ideology. Human rights violations were legitimated by the dictatorship from that ideological framework. Anticommunism decayed by the late s alongside socialist experiences around the world.

Global transoceanic migration booms of the 19th century brought with them more than a quarter of a million migrants from the Arabic-speaking eastern Mediterranean destined for Latin American cities, towns, and rural outposts across the region.

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Over the course of the early 20th century, a near-constant mobility of circulating people, things, and ideas characterized the formation of immigrant identities and communities with roots primarily in the Levantine area of the Middle East. Over time, historians of this migration have come to interpret as central the transnational and transregional nature of the ties that many individuals, families, and institutions in Latin America carefully maintained with their counterparts across the Atlantic.

As the 20th century progressed, Middle Eastern migrants and their subsequent generations of descendants consolidated institutions, financial networks, and a plethora of other life projects in their respective Latin American home places. Meanwhile, they continued to seek meaningful participation in the realities of a Middle East-North Africa region undergoing deep shifts in its geopolitical, social, and cultural landscapes from the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and the end of World War I, through the tumultuous century that followed.

Architecture in Mexico City in the midth century was shaped by rapid economic and urban growth, demographic change, new construction technologies, and politics. Architects adapted modernist idioms and those that evoked historical precedents for new purposes. As they had been since the s, public patrons were the most important clients of modern buildings, which often addressed needs for better housing, education, and health care.

The period also saw the rise of modern suburbs and the evolution of the single-family house, as well as the creation of major buildings for increasingly important cultural institutions, especially museums. As they had in preceding decades, architects used the non-architectural arts, particularly painting, to distinguish their works. The legacy of the Mexican muralist movement was most evident on the facades of major buildings in the new University City, where the influence of international modernist planning principles was also striking.

In Mexico City hosted the Olympics, for which architects, planners, and designers created a network of buildings and images that functioned interdependently to present Mexico as cosmopolitan and historically rooted in its indigenous history. Sprawl and pollution worsened in the s, as the capital came to be dominated by buildings that were not designed by architects.

While some observers questioned the relevance of architecture in the face of seemingly unstoppable and uncontrollable growth, talented young architects responded with buildings notable for their monumentality, mass, and sophisticated engagement with historical types. Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, Argentina became closely linked to the North Atlantic world, as the founding fathers of the modern state established a political order modeled on liberal principles, developed a dynamic export economy, and presided over a large immigration—mainly from Spain and Italy.

These processes provided the historical framework for the impact of the European crisis of the interwar years in Argentine cultural groups and debates in the s. These misleading news stories were published in the front pages of those newspapers and at prime time in their affiliate TV and radio stations. Corrections and retractions rarely appeared in the front pages or prime time.

Macri voters came to accept the initial news as legitimate and were influenced by them during the presidential election. It introduced a model of healthcare in which Maya health promoters and midwives became partners in healing rather than objects to be cured. ASECSA was founded to disseminate knowledge of popular health education strategies used by health promoters and midwives to provide preventive and curative medical services to their communities. Ecumenical religious centers affiliated with liberation theology in the s and s facilitated the development of popular health programs that played a defining role in the region.

On December 8, , in the midst of increasing nuclear weapons testing and geopolitical polarization, United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower launched the Atoms for Peace initiative. More than a pacifist program, the initiative is nowadays seen as an essential piece in the U.

As such, it pursued several ambitious goals, and Latin America was an ideal target for most of them: to create political allies, to ease fears of the deadly atomic energy while fostering receptive attitudes towards nuclear technologies, to control and avoid development of nuclear weapons outside the United States and its allies, and to open or redirect markets for the new nuclear industry. The U. Department of State, through the Foreign Operations Administration, acted in concert with several domestic and foreign middle-range actors, including people at national nuclear commissions, universities, and industrial funds, to implement programs of regional technical assistance, education and training, and technological transfer.

Nevertheless, as seen from Latin America, the implementation of atomic energy for peaceful purposes was reinterpreted in different ways in each country. This fact produced different outcomes, depending on the political, economic, and techno-scientific expectations and interventions of the actors involved. It provided, therefore, an opportunity to create local scientific elites and infrastructure. Finally, the peaceful uses of atomic energy allowed the countries in the region to develop national and international political discourses framing the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean signed in Tlatelolco, Mexico City, in , which made Latin America the first atomic weapons—free populated zone in the world.

Set within a larger analysis of class relations in the Haitian Revolution, this is a microhistory that intersects with several important themes in the revolution: rumor, atrocity, the arming of slaves, race relations, and the origins and wealth of the free colored population. It is an empirical investigation of an obscure rebellion by free men of color in the Grande Anse region in Although the rebellion is obscure, it is associated with an atrocity story that has long resonated in discussion of the revolution.

Formerly the least-known segment of Caribbean society, research has shed much new light on free people of color in recent decades, but much remains to be clarified. In certain ways, they are the key to understanding the Haitian Revolution, because of their anomalous position in Saint Domingue society and the way their activism precipitated its unraveling. The Grande Anse region had a unique experience of the revolution in that white supremacy and slavery were maintained there longer than in any other part of the colony.

Based primarily on unexploited or little-known sources the article demonstrates the range and depth of research that remains possible and suggests that a regional focus is best way to advance current scholarship on the Haitian Revolution. The materials produced by the DAPP designated collective identities; defined relations between the government and its enemies, rivals and allies; preserved and molded past memories, and sought to project fears and hopes into the future. The continuous use of the media was a response of the Cardenista administration to the constant rejection that its public policies generated, either because they affected particular economic interests or because they were considered as an affront to the way of thinking of various social sectors, particularly those identified with Catholicism.

Hence, they deemed it essential to start up a strong propaganda apparatus in order to reverse the opposition and generate supporters. Its creation is framed by the efforts taken by various governments during the s that viewed propaganda as an effective tool for producing political consensus, generating feelings of national unity, and changing public habits.