Many psychologists used these results to develop theories of human learning, but modern educators generally see behaviorism as one aspect of a holistic synthesis. Teaching in behaviorism has been linked to training, emphasizing the animal learning experiments. Since behaviorism consists of the view of teaching people how to do something with rewards and punishments, it is related to training people.
Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of verbal behavior   and wrote "The Technology of Teaching",   an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction. Ogden Lindsley developed a learning system, named Celeration, that was based on behavior analysis but that substantially differed from Keller's and Skinner's models.
Cognitive science underwent significant change in the s and s to the point that some described the period as a "cognitive revolution" particularly in reaction to behaviorism. It refers to learning as "all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used" by the human mind.
The Cognitive concepts of working memory formerly known as short-term memory and long-term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive load , information processing , and media psychology.
These theoretical perspectives influence instructional design. There are two separate schools of cognitivism and these are the cognitivist and social cognitivist. The former focuses on the understanding of the thinking or cognitive processes of an individual while the latter includes social processes as influences in learning besides cognition.
Educational psychologists distinguish between several types of constructivism : individual or psychological constructivism, such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development , and social constructivism. This form of constructivism has a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives.
Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners.
Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may incorporate learner centered problem-based learning , project-based learning , and inquiry-based learning , ideally involving real-world scenarios, in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. An illustrative discussion and example can be found in the s deployment of constructivist cognitive learning in computer literacy, which involved programming as an instrument of learning.
From a constructivist approach, the research works on the human learning process as a complex adaptive system developed by Peter Belohlavek showed that it is the concept that the individual has that drives the accommodation process to assimilate new knowledge in the long-term memory , defining learning as an intrinsically freedom-oriented and active process. The extent to which e-learning assists or replaces other learning and teaching approaches is variable, ranging on a continuum from none to fully online distance learning. For example, "hybrid learning" or " blended learning " may refer to classroom aids and laptops, or may refer to approaches in which traditional classroom time is reduced but not eliminated, and is replaced with some online learning.
E-learning may either be synchronous or asynchronous. Synchronous learning refers to the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period. Examples are face-to-face discussion, online real-time live teacher instruction and feedback, Skype conversations, and chat rooms or virtual classrooms where everyone is online and working collaboratively at the same time.
Since students are working collaboratively, synchronized learning helps students become more open minded because they have to actively listen and learn from their peers. Synchronized learning fosters online awareness and improves many students' writing skills. Asynchronous learning may use technologies such as learning management systems , email , blogs , wikis , and discussion boards , as well as web -supported textbooks,  hypertext documents, audio  video courses, and social networking using web 2.
At the professional educational level, training may include virtual operating rooms. Asynchronous learning is beneficial for students who have health problems or who have child care responsibilities. They have the opportunity to complete their work in a low stress environment and within a more flexible time frame.
If they need to listen to a lecture a second time, or think about a question for a while, they may do so without fearing that they will hold back the rest of the class. Through online courses, students can earn their diplomas more quickly, or repeat failed courses without the embarrassment of being in a class with younger students.
Students have access to an incredible variety of enrichment courses in online learning, and can participate in college courses, internships, sports, or work and still graduate with their class. Computer-based training CBT refers to self-paced learning activities delivered on a computer or handheld device such as a tablet or smartphone.
Computer-based training is conceptually similar to web-based training WBT which are delivered via Internet using a web browser. Assessing learning in a CBT is often by assessments that can be easily scored by a computer such as multiple choice questions, drag-and-drop, radio button, simulation or other interactive means. Assessments are easily scored and recorded via online software, providing immediate end-user feedback and completion status. Users are often able to print completion records in the form of certificates. CBTs provide learning stimulus beyond traditional learning methodology from textbook, manual, or classroom-based instruction.
CBTs can be a good alternative to printed learning materials since rich media, including videos or animations, can be embedded to enhance the learning. Help, CBTs pose some learning challenges. Typically, the creation of effective CBTs requires enormous resources. The software for developing CBTs is often more complex than a subject matter expert or teacher is able to use.
Computer-supported collaborative learning CSCL uses instructional methods designed to encourage or require students to work together on learning tasks, allowing social learning. CSCL is similar in concept to the terminology, "e-learning 2. This collaborative learning differs from instruction in which the instructor is the principal source of knowledge and skills. In contrast to that linear delivery of content, often directly from the instructor's material, CSCL uses social software such as blogs , social media, wikis , podcasts , cloud-based document portals, and discussion groups and virtual worlds.
Collaborative apps allow students and teachers to interact while studying. Apps are designed after games, which provide a fun way to revise. When the experience is enjoyable the students become more engaged. Games also usually come with a sense of progression, which can help keep students motivated and consistent while trying to improve.
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Classroom 2. Known as "eTwinning", computer-supported collaborative learning CSCL allows learners in one school to communicate with learners in another that they would not get to know otherwise,   enhancing educational outcomes  and cultural integration. Further, many researchers distinguish between collaborative and cooperative approaches to group learning. For example, Roschelle and Teasley argue that "cooperation is accomplished by the division of labour among participants, as an activity where each person is responsible for a portion of the problem solving", in contrast with collaboration that involves the "mutual engagement of participants in a coordinated effort to solve the problem together.
This is an instructional strategy in which computer-assisted teaching is integrated with classroom instruction. Students are given basic essential instruction, such as lectures, before class instead of during class. Instructional content is delivered outside of the classroom, often online. The out-of-class delivery includes streaming video, reading materials, online chats, and other resources. Numerous types of physical technology are currently used:   digital cameras, video cameras, interactive whiteboard tools, document cameras, electronic media , and LCD projectors.
Combinations of these techniques include blogs , collaborative software , ePortfolios , and virtual classrooms. The current design of this type of applications includes the evaluation through tools of cognitive analysis that allow to identify which elements optimize the use of these platforms. Video technology  has included VHS tapes and DVDs , as well as on-demand and synchronous methods with digital video via server or web-based options such as streamed video and webcams. Telecommuting can connect with speakers and other experts. Interactive digital video games are being used at K and higher education institutions.
Radio offers a synchronous educational vehicle, while streaming audio over the internet with webcasts and podcasts can be asynchronous. Classroom microphones, often wireless, can enable learners and educators to interact more clearly. Screencasting allows users to share their screens directly from their browser and make the video available online so that other viewers can stream the video directly. In combination with audio and video, the educator can mimic the one-on-one experience of the classroom.
Learners have an ability to pause and rewind, to review at their own pace, something a classroom cannot always offer. Webcams and webcasting have enabled creation of virtual classrooms and virtual learning environment. Collaborative learning is a group-based learning approach in which learners are mutually engaged in a coordinated fashion to achieve a learning goal or complete a learning task. With recent developments in smartphone technology, the processing powers and storage capabilities of modern mobiles allow for advanced development and use of apps. Many app developers and education experts have been exploring smartphone and tablet apps as a medium for collaborative learning.
Computers and tablets enable learners and educators to access websites as well as applications. Many mobile devices support m-learning. Mobile devices such as clickers and smartphones can be used for interactive audience response feedback. Such devices as iPads are used for helping disabled visually impaired or with multiple disabilities children in communication development as well as in improving physiological activity, according to the iStimulation Practice Report.
Group webpages, blogs , wikis , and Twitter allow learners and educators to post thoughts, ideas, and comments on a website in an interactive learning environment. Social networking encourages collaboration and engagement  and can be a motivational tool for self-efficacy amongst students. There are three types of whiteboards.
The term whiteboard is also used metaphorically to refer to virtual whiteboards in which computer software applications simulate whiteboards by allowing writing or drawing. This is a common feature of groupware for virtual meeting, collaboration, and instant messaging. Interactive whiteboards allow learners and instructors to write on the touch screen. The screen markup can be on either a blank whiteboard or any computer screen content. Depending on permission settings, this visual learning can be interactive and participatory, including writing and manipulating images on the interactive whiteboard.
A virtual learning environment VLE , also known as a learning platform, simulates a virtual classroom or meetings by simultaneously mixing several communication technologies. Web conferencing software enables students and instructors to communicate with each other via webcam, microphone, and real-time chatting in a group setting. Participants can raise hands, answer polls or take tests. Students are able to whiteboard and screencast when given rights by the instructor, who sets permission levels for text notes, microphone rights and mouse control.
A virtual classroom provides the opportunity for students to receive direct instruction from a qualified teacher in an interactive environment.
Learners can have direct and immediate access to their instructor for instant feedback and direction. The virtual classroom provides a structured schedule of classes, which can be helpful for students who may find the freedom of asynchronous learning to be overwhelming. In addition, the virtual classroom provides a social learning environment that replicates the traditional "brick and mortar" classroom. Most virtual classroom applications provide a recording feature.
Each class is recorded and stored on a server , which allows for instant playback of any class over the course of the school year. This can be extremely useful for students to retrieve missed material or review concepts for an upcoming exam. Parents and auditors have the conceptual ability to monitor any classroom to ensure that they are satisfied with the education the learner is receiving. In higher education especially, a virtual learning environment VLE is sometimes combined with a management information system MIS to create a managed learning environment , in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface throughout the institution.
Physical universities and newer online-only colleges offer select academic degrees and certificate programs via the Internet. Some programs require students to attend some campus classes or orientations, but many are delivered completely online. Several universities offer online student support services, such as online advising and registration, e-counseling, online textbook purchases, student governments and student newspapers.
Augmented reality AR provides students and teachers the opportunity to create layers of digital information, including both virtual world and real world elements, to interact with in real time. An example tool is Lumilo,  a mixed-reality smart glass that provides teachers with real-time analytics of every student in the classroom. Prior studies have shown that Lumilo can change classroom dynamics and direct teachers' time and attention to students who require human assistance, such as those who exhibit unproductive persistence or game the system.
In this vision, the technology's role is to enhance, rather than replace, human teachers' capabilities. A learning management system LMS is software used for delivering, tracking and managing training and education. It tracks data about attendance, time on task, and student progress. Educators can post announcements, grade assignments, check on course activity, and participate in class discussions.
Students can submit their work, read and respond to discussion questions, and take quizzes. The creation and maintenance of comprehensive learning content requires substantial initial and ongoing investments of human labor. Effective translation into other languages and cultural contexts requires even more investment by knowledgeable personnel.
Internet-based learning management systems include Canvas , Blackboard Inc. These types of LMS allow educators to run a learning system partially or fully online, asynchronously or synchronously. Learning Management Systems also offer a non-linear presentation of content and curricular goals, giving students the choice of pace and order of information learned. A learning content management system LCMS is software for author content courses, reusable content objects.
A recent trend in LCMSs is to address this issue through crowdsourcing cf. SlideWiki . Computer-aided assessment e-assessment ranges from automated multiple-choice tests to more sophisticated systems. With some systems, feedback can be geared towards a student's specific mistakes or the computer can navigate the student through a series of questions adapting to what the student appears to have learned or not learned.
Formative assessment sifts out the incorrect answers, and these questions are then explained by the teacher. The learner then practices with slight variations of the sifted out questions. The process is completed by summative assessment using a new set of questions that only cover the topics previously taught.
An electronic performance support system EPSS is, according to Barry Raybould, "a computer-based system that improves worker productivity by providing on-the-job access to integrated information, advice, and learning experiences". A training management system or training resource management system is a software designed to optimize instructor-led training management. Similar to an enterprise resource planning ERP , it is a back office tool which aims at streamlining every aspect of the training process: planning training plan and budget forecasting , logistics scheduling and resource management , financials cost tracking, profitability , reporting, and sales for-profit training providers.
While training management systems focus on managing instructor-led training , they can complete an LMS. In this situation, an LMS will manage e-learning delivery and assessment, while a training management system will manage ILT and back-office budget planning, logistic and reporting. Content and design architecture issues include pedagogy and learning object re-use. One approach looks at five aspects: .
Pedagogical elements are defined as structures or units of educational material. They are the educational content that is to be delivered. These units are independent of format, meaning that although the unit may be delivered in various ways, the pedagogical structures themselves are not the textbook, web page, video conference , Podcast , lesson, assignment, multiple choice question, quiz, discussion group or a case study, all of which are possible methods of delivery. Much effort has been put into the technical reuse of electronically based teaching materials and in particular creating or re-using learning objects.
These are self-contained units that are properly tagged with keywords, or other metadata , and often stored in an XML file format. Creating a course requires putting together a sequence of learning objects. There are both proprietary and open, non-commercial and commercial, peer-reviewed repositories of learning objects such as the Merlot repository. Other specifications such as Schools Interoperability Framework allow for the transporting of learning objects , or for categorizing metadata LOM.
As artificial intelligence AI becomes more prominent in this age of big data , it has also been widely adopted in K classrooms. One prominent class of AI-enhanced educational technology is intelligent tutoring systems ITSs , designed to provide immediate and personalized feedbacks to students. The incentive to develop ITS comes from educational studies showing that individual tutoring is much more effective than group teaching,   in addition to the need for promoting learning on a larger scale. Over the years, a combination of cognitive science theories and data-driven techniques have greatly enhanced the capabilities of ITS, allowing it to model a wide range of students' characteristics, such as knowledge,  affect,  off-task behavior  and wheel spinning.
Recent works have also focused on developing AI-enhanced learning tools that supports human teachers in coordinating classroom activities. On the other hand, AI can share the workload and recommend the best course of actions e. Various forms of electronic media can be a feature of preschool life. The age when a given child might start using a particular technology such as a cellphone or computer might depend on matching a technological resource to the recipient's developmental capabilities, such as the age-anticipated stages labeled by Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget. At the preschool level, technology can be introduced in several ways.
At the most basic is the use of computers, tablets, and audio and video resources in classrooms. Some options that are age-appropriate are video- or audio- recording of their creations, introducing them to the use of the internet through browsing age-appropriate websites, providing assistive technology to allow differently-abled children to participate with the rest of their peers,  educational apps, electronic books, and educational videos. Educational technology is also thought to improve hand-eye coordination, language skills, visual attention and motivation to complete educational tasks, and allows children to experience things they otherwise wouldn't.
E-learning is utilized by public K—12 schools in the United States as well as private schools. Some e-learning environments take place in a traditional classroom, others allow students to attend classes from home or other locations. There are several states that are utilizing virtual school platforms for e-learning across the country that continue to increase.
Virtual school enables students to log into synchronous learning or asynchronous learning courses anywhere there is an internet connection. E-learning is increasingly being utilized by students who may not want to go to traditional brick and mortar schools due to severe allergies or other medical issues, fear of school violence and school bullying and students whose parents would like to homeschool but do not feel qualified. Online charter schools also often are not limited by location, income level or class size in the way brick and mortar charter schools are.
E-learning also has been rising as a supplement to the traditional classroom. Students with special talents or interests outside of the available curricula use e-learning to advance their skills or exceed grade restrictions. National private schools are also available online. These provide the benefits of e-learning to students in states where charter online schools are not available. They also may allow students greater flexibility and exemption from state testing.
Some of these schools are available at the high school level and offer college prep courses to students.
Virtual education in K schooling often refers to virtual schools , and in higher education to virtual universities. Virtual schools are "cyber charter schools "  with innovative administrative models and course delivery technology. Education technology also seems to be an interesting method of engaging gifted youths that are under-stimulated in their current educational program.
Although a large proportion of for-profit higher education institutions now offer online classes, only about half of private, non-profit schools do so. Private institutions may become more involved with on-line presentations as the costs decrease.
Properly trained staff must also be hired to work with students online. Online education is rapidly increasing, and online doctoral programs have even developed at leading research universities. Although massive open online courses MOOCs may have limitations that preclude them from fully replacing college education,  such programs have significantly expanded. MIT , Stanford and Princeton University offer classes to a global audience, but not for college credit.
MOOCs have not had a significant impact on higher education and declined after the initial expansion, but are expected to remain in some form. E-learning is being used by companies to deliver mandatory compliance training and updates for regulatory compliance , soft skills and IT skills training, continuing professional development CPD and other valuable workplace skills.
Companies with spread out distribution chains use e-learning for delivering information about the latest product developments. Most of corporate e-learning is asynchronous and delivered and managed via learning management systems. There is an important need for recent, reliable, and high-quality health information to be made available to the public as well as in summarized form for public health providers.
Another application in public health is the development of mHealth use of mobile telecommunication and multimedia into global public health.
Evaluating Educational Technology
MHealth has been used to promote prenatal and newborn services, with positive outcomes. In addition, "Health systems have implemented mHealth programs to facilitate emergency medical responses, point-of-care support, health promotion and data collection. Effective technology use deploys multiple evidence-based strategies concurrently e. Modern educational technology can improve access to education,  including full degree programs. Using online resources can help students spend more time on specific aspects of what they may be learning in school, but at home.
The necessity to pay for transport to the educational facility is removed. Students appreciate the convenience of e-learning, but report greater engagement in face-to-face learning environments. According to James Kulik, who studies the effectiveness of computers used for instruction, students usually learn more in less time when receiving computer-based instruction and they like classes more and develop more positive attitudes toward computers in computer-based classes.
Students can independently solve problems. Students editing their written work on word processors improve the quality of their writing. According to some studies, the students are better at critiquing and editing written work that is exchanged over a computer network with students they know. Employers' acceptance of online education has risen over time.
Seventy-nine percent said they had employed a candidate with an online degree in the past 12 months. The use of educational apps generally has a positive effect on learning. Pre- and post- tests reveal that the use of apps on mobile devices reduces the achievement gap between struggling and average students. The benefits of app-assisted learning have been exhibited in all age groups. Kindergarten students that use iPads show much higher rates of literacy than non-users. Globally, factors like change management, technology obsolescence and vendor- developer partnership are major restraints that are hindering the growth of Educational technology market.
In US, state and the federal government increased funding, as well as private venture capital has been flowing into education sector. However, as of [update] , none were looking at technology return on investment ROI to connect expenditures on technology with improved student outcomes.
New technologies are frequently accompanied by unrealistic hype and promise regarding their transformative power to change education for the better or in allowing better educational opportunities to reach the masses. Examples include silent film, broadcast radio, and television, none of which have maintained much of a foothold in the daily practices of mainstream, formal education. It needs to be recognized as "ecological" rather than "additive" or "subtractive".
In this ecological change, one significant change will create total change. According to Branford et al. Published in the Journal of Pediatrics , a University of Washington study on the vocabulary of babies surveyed over 1, parents in Washington and Minnesota. The study found that for every one hour that babies 8—16 months of age watched DVDs and Videos they knew fewer of 90 common baby words than the babies that did not watch them. Andrew Meltzoff, a surveyor in this study states that the result makes sense, that if the baby's "alert time" is spent in front of DVDs and TV, instead of with people speaking, the babies are not going to get the same linguistic experience.
Dimitri Chistakis, another surveyor reported that the evidence is mounting that baby DVDs are of no value and may be harmful. Adaptive instructional materials tailor questions to each student's ability and calculate their scores, but this encourages students to work individually rather than socially or collaboratively Kruse, Social relationships are important but high-tech environments may compromise the balance of trust, care and respect between teacher and student. Massively open online courses MOOCs , although quite popular in discussions of technology and education in developed countries more so in the US , are not a major concern in most developing or low-income countries.
One of the stated goals of MOOCs is to provide less fortunate populations i. With the Internet and social media, using educational apps makes the students highly susceptible to distraction and sidetracking. Even though proper use has shown to increase student performances, being distracted would be detrimental. Another disadvantage is increased potential for cheating. Smartphones can be very easy to hide and use inconspicuously, especially if their use is normalized in the classroom. These disadvantages can be managed with strict rules and regulations on mobile phone use.
Electronic devices such as cellphones and computers facilitate rapid access to a stream of sources, each of which may receive cursory attention. Michel Rich, an associate professor at Harvard Medical School and executive director of the center on Media and Child Health in Boston, said of the digital generation, "Their brains are rewarded not for staying on task, but for jumping to the next thing. The worry is we're raising a generation of kids in front of screens whose brains are going to be wired differently.
Although these technologies affect adults too, young people may be more influenced by it as their developing brains can easily become habituated to switching tasks and become unaccustomed to sustaining attention. Technology is "rapidly and profoundly altering our brains. This leads to heightened stress levels on the brain that, at first, boost energy levels, but, over time, actually augment memory, impair cognition, lead to depression, alter the neural circuitry of the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex.
These are the brain regions that control mood and thought. If unchecked, the underlying structure of the brain could be altered. When children are exposed before the age of seven, important developmental tasks may be delayed, and bad learning habits might develop, which "deprives children of the exploration and play that they need to develop. According to Lai, "the learning environment is a complex system where the interplay and interactions of many things impact the outcome of learning.
If technology monopolizes an activity, students can begin to develop the sense that "life would scarcely be thinkable without technology. Leo Marx considered the word "technology" itself as problematic,  susceptible to reification and "phantom objectivity", which conceals its fundamental nature as something that is only valuable insofar as it benefits the human condition. Technology ultimately comes down to affecting the relations between people, but this notion is obfuscated when technology is treated as an abstract notion devoid of good and evil.
Langdon Winner makes a similar point by arguing that the underdevelopment of the philosophy of technology leaves us with an overly simplistic reduction in our discourse to the supposedly dichotomous notions of the "making" versus the "uses" of new technologies, and that a narrow focus on "use" leads us to believe that all technologies are neutral in moral standing. Winner viewed technology as a "form of life" that not only aids human activity, but that also represents a powerful force in reshaping that activity and its meaning. In education, standardized testing has arguably redefined the notions of learning and assessment.
We rarely explicitly reflect on how strange a notion it is that a number between, say, 0 and could accurately reflect a person's knowledge about the world. According to Winner, the recurring patterns in everyday life tend to become an unconscious process that we learn to take for granted. Winner writes,. By far the greatest latitude of choice exists the very first time a particular instrument, system, or technique is introduced.
Because choices tend to become strongly fixed in material equipment, economic investment, and social habit, the original flexibility vanishes for all practical purposes once the initial commitments are made. In that sense, technological innovations are similar to legislative acts or political foundings that establish a framework for public order that will endure over many generations. When adopting new technologies, there may be one best chance to "get it right. Now that typing has become a digital process, this is no longer an issue, but the QWERTY arrangement lives on as a social habit, one that is very difficult to change.
Neil Postman endorsed the notion that technology impacts human cultures, including the culture of classrooms, and that this is a consideration even more important than considering the efficiency of a new technology as a tool for teaching. What we need to consider about the computer has nothing to do with its efficiency as a teaching tool.
We need to know in what ways it is altering our conception of learning, and how in conjunction with television, it undermines the old idea of school. There is an assumption that technology is inherently interesting so it must be helpful in education; based on research by Daniel Willingham, that is not always the case. He argues that it does not necessarily matter what the technological medium is, but whether or not the content is engaging and utilizes the medium in a beneficial way.
The concept of the digital divide is a gap between those who have access to digital technologies and those who do not. According to a report by the Electronic Frontier Foundation , large amounts of personal data on children is collected by electronic devices that are distributed in schools in the United States. Often far more information than necessary is collected, uploaded and stored indefinitely. Aside name and date of birth, this information can include the child's browsing history, search terms, location data, contact lists, as well as behavioral information.
Since technology is not the end goal of education, but rather a means by which it can be accomplished, educators must have a good grasp of the technology and its advantages and disadvantages. Teacher training aims for effective integration of classroom technology. The evolving nature of technology may unsettle teachers, who may experience themselves as perpetual novices.
Random professional development days are inadequate. According to Jenkins, "Rather than dealing with each technology in isolation, we would do better to take an ecological approach, thinking about the interrelationship among different communication technologies, the cultural communities that grow up around them, and the activities they support. There are two distinct issues of assessment: the assessment of educational technology   and assessment with technology.
Assessments of educational technology have included the Follow Through project. Educational assessment with technology may be either formative assessment or summative assessment. Instructors use both types of assessment to understand student progress and learning in the classroom. Technology has helped teachers create better assessments to help understand where students who are having trouble with the material are having issues.
Formative assessment is more difficult, as the perfect form is ongoing and allows the students to show their learning in different ways depending on their learning styles. Technology has helped some teachers make their formative assessments better, particularly through the use of classroom response systems CRS. The instructor then asks multiple choice or true or false questions and the students answer on their device. Summative assessments are more common in classrooms and are usually set up to be more easily graded, as they take the form of tests or projects with specific grading schemes.
One huge benefit to tech-based testing is the option to give students immediate feedback on their answers. When students get these responses, they are able to know how they are doing in the class which can help push them to improve or give them confidence that they are doing well. Electronic assessment uses information technology.
It encompasses several potential applications, which may be teacher or student-oriented, including educational assessment throughout the continuum of learning, such as computerized classification testing , computerized adaptive testing , student testing , and grading an exam. E-Marking is an examiner led activity closely related to other e-assessment activities such as e-testing, or e-learning which are student-led.
E-marking allows markers to mark a scanned script or online response on a computer screen rather than on paper. There are no restrictions to the types of tests that can use e-marking, with e-marking applications designed to accommodate multiple choice, written, and even video submissions for performance examinations. E-marking software is used by individual educational institutions and can also be rolled out to the participating schools of awarding exam organisations.
Ofqual reports that e-marking is the main type of marking used for general qualifications in the United Kingdom. In June , the Odisha state government in India announced that it planned to use e-marking for all Plus II papers from The importance of self-assessment through tools made available on Educational Technology platforms has been growing.
Self-assessment in education technology relies on students analyzing their strengths, weaknesses and areas where improvement is possible to set realistic goals in learning, improve their educational performances and track their progress. Analytics is data gathered on the student's activities on the learning platform, drawn into meaningful patterns that lead to a valid conclusion, usually through the medium of data visualization such as graphs. Learning analytics is the field that focuses on analyzing and reporting data about student's activities in order to facilitate learning. The five key sectors of the e-learning industry are consulting, content, technologies, services and support.
Educational technologists and psychologists apply basic educational and psychological research into an evidence-based applied science or a technology of learning or instruction. In research, these professions typically require a graduate degree Master's, Doctorate, Ph. In industry, educational technology is utilized to train students and employees by a wide range of learning and communication practitioners, including instructional designers , technical trainers , technical communication and professional communication specialists, technical writers , and of course primary school and college teachers of all levels.
The transformation of educational technology from a cottage industry to a profession is discussed by Shurville et al. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. It is not to be confused with Online machine learning. Main article: Educational software. Main articles: Educational psychology , E-learning theory , Learning theory education , and Educational philosophies. See also: Instructional design. Is it appropriate for the teaching and learning situations? Is it updated? Will it match the capacity of my students? Will it help me convey the message of the lesson? Will it help me demonstrate the processes? The teacher may take note of the benefits and problems encountered during implementation.
Is educational technology attractive to the students? Is it innovative and exciting? Is it being used appropriately? Is it easy to use? Does it help the students understand the lesson better? Does it help me explain the lesson? Does it help students to develop their higher order thinking skills? Does it help students to stay in focus? Does it improve learners behaviour when it comes to learning?
Are students more participative and more engaged in learning? Are there problems encountered and during the use of educational technology? Did it help my students achieve the intended learning outcomes? Did it improve the performance of the students in the subject matter? Did it enhance my students learning? Did it help me determine the strong and weak points of my students in learning the subject matter?
Are students looking forward to learn the next lesson? Evaluating Software Programs 1. Content — the teacher has to determine if the content relates to the curriculum, school standards and instructional objectives. Technical quality and Ease of Use- teachers have to consider the ff.
Sample of software Evaluation Tool Use the ff. The content is accurate and factual. The content is educationally appropriate. The content is free of error. The content meets your learning goals and objective. The content is free of stereotypes and cultural bias. The content meets the school standards. Documentation and Support 1. The software has a support number. Online technical support is available. Help and tutorials are clear and easy to use. The ability level can be set by the teacher.
The ability level automatically advances. Assessment 1. Software has built-in assessment and reporting tools. Assessment method are appropriate and suited to learning objectives. Software documents and records students progress. Teachers can assess students progress easily by evaluating progress report. Animation an graphics are used well.
Feedback and prompts are appropriate. The applications allows branching and chunking. Ease of use 1. The software is reliable and free of disruption system error. Educational technology integration: Evaluating its effectiveness The ff. Authentic assessment are under alternative assessment. It helps students to develop real world skill that make them life- ready which can be applied outside the school. Wiggins list six characteristics of an authentic assessment. The assessment is realistic; 2. The assessment require judgement and innovation; 3. The assessment is done in situation; 5. The assessment allows for practice, feedback, and second chances to solve the problem solving being addressed.
Project- based Assessment o is based on authentic learning which is project-based learning PBL which engages students in real- world projects where they are given a significant task to fulfill. Portfolio Assessment o is also known as embedded assessment. Checklist, Rating scales, and Rubrics Tips for developing checklist, rating scales, and rubrics: 1. Use checklist, rating scales rubrics in relation to outcomes and standards.
Use simple formats that can be understood by the students. Ensure that the various skills that students need to demonstrate are clear, and specific and observable.